BC. XI. YY. Azzi-Hayashi period

• BC. VIII. YY. Urartian rule

BC. 585-550 Meds period

BC. 550-530 Persian period

• BC. 330-323 Alexander period

 BC. 323-120 period of the Selokite Kingdom

• BC. Period of 120-34 Parts

• BC. 34 Beginning of Roman rule

BC. 395 The beginning of Byzantine rule

• 610 Sassanis invaded Erzurum

 638 İlyaz Bin Ganen invaded Erzurum

651 Habib bin Mesence took back Erzurum from Byzantium

 686 Byzantine commander Leontlos conqured Erzurum

• 700 Abdullah, the son of Abdulmelik  Umayyad Caliphate , took Erzurum back from Byzantium

• 753 the Byzantines conquered the city

• 772  Amr bin Ismail al-Haris, who came to the city on Armenian revolts, made the city connected to Abbasid administration

934 Loannes Kurkuas seized the city and connected it to the Byzantine administration

 948 Abbasids took the city back

• 949 Loannes Çimiskes reconnected  the city to the Byzantine administration

 979 granting of Erzurum region to Baptized David

1001 II. Basileos to withdraw the region of Erzurum from Bagrats

1019 II. Basileos captured Oltu

• 1048 Abraham Yinal and Kutan Bey raided Erzurum region

1054 Tuğrul Bey's proceeded in front of Erzurum

 1058 Yakut Bey took many places in the region of Erzurum

 1071 Ebkukasim conquered the territory of Erzurum to establish the Principality of Saltuklu

1202 Anatolian Seljuk Sultan II. Suleiman Shah abolished the Principality of Saltuklu

1230 Alaeddin Keykubat took Cihanşah, the governor of Erzurum from office and connected Erzurum directly to the administration of Anatolian Seljuk

• 1242 Erzurum was conqured by the Mongols

1295 Erzurum came under the  Ilkhanid  domination

 1358 Algerian Uveys Bahadır Khan took Erzurum

1385 Karakoyunlus  invaded Erzurum

1387 Timur gave the ruling of the city  to Mutahharten

 1404 Upon the death of Timur, Yusuf Ali took over the city administration

1434 Akkoyunlu sovereign Karayülük Osman took Erzurum

1468 Akkoyunlu Uzun Hasan invaded Erzurum

1502 the Safavids took Erzurum

• 1517 Yavuz Sultan Selim connected Erzurum to Ottoman administration

1535 Establishment of Governor Erzuru

• 1590 The revolt of the local people against the janissary

 1622 Abaza Mehmet Pashan's rebellion

1628 End of Abaza Mehmet Pashan's rebellion

1803 The Rebellion of Georgian Osman Pashan, the Governor of Erzurum

• 1828 Russian occupation of Erzurum

• 1829 Removal of Russians from Erzurum

1856 Turkish-Russian war (Gavurboğan wars)

• 1877 Erzurum's re-invasion of the Russian occupation and Erzurum's glorious triumph in the glorious Aziziye war

 1879 The end of the Russian occupation with the Berlin Treaty 

Reference: Dr. Lütfi SEZEN

The City on The Peak

Living with the variety of civilisations, Erzurum is an old city of Anatolia the cradle of civilisations. It is called as the Gate of Anatolia.

The economic and political centre of the region during its 6000 year history; Today it is one of the developed and contemporary settlements of our country with both its geopolitical importance and tourist and social life opportunities.

Erzurum has the secret of history and culture with its deep, dimensional and rich cultural treasure.

It also has variety of natural wealth that can be found in various fields such as winter tourism in particular, cultural tourism, natural tourism  and thermal (hot spring) tourism.

Erzurum which is one of the popular city of our country with its developing opportunity and chance of social life besides all these things, is also called as  educational city with its over 150 thousands university students.

That the 64%  geographical area of it is made up of mountains, Erzurum is an important and featured city with its hills over 3000 metres, natural forests ,altitude difference ranging from 800 metre to over 3000 metres and the temperature difference ranging from 36,5 to -37,5.

Life in the City

As a city of students Erzurum has suitable and healthy living conditions and environments.

It has appropriate economic conditions in terms of clothing, food, accommodation and transport. In the city where the social habitats are rich alternative possibilities for art and sports are also considerable.

Reputable human affairs which can be shown as a model for Turkish hospitality are also one of the characteristic feature of the city.

The domestic and international transportation to Erzurum is possible via air, land and rail way.

Almost every day there are round-trip flights from Erzurum to many cities such as Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Bursa and Antalya and facilities of road transportation are provided for all the cities.

Accommodation facilities consist of a large number of state dormitories for 12 thousands people in particular, many private dormitories, hostels, guesthouses and flats for rent.

Of course, apart from all these things, the main feature of Erzurum is that it is the city of PEACE and SAFETY

Winter Tourism and Winter Sports in Erzurum

 Erzurum which is the main place for the people who like holiday, nature, sport and ski is one of the special centres of winter tourism with its snow quality, long ski tracks, facilities  and the nature which is the convenient to ski for 5 months.

There are three ski centres in the city. These are Palandöken, Konaklı and Kandilli ski Centres. Besides; there are variety of winter sports’ hall such as curling field with high level of technical and technological equipment, ice hockey hall, ice-skating hall and short track hall; apart from these there are ski jumping towers which are special in the World with not only its visuality but also the facilities they have.

Palandöken Ski Resort

In terms of winter sports and winter tourism movements, Palandoken Mountains-one of the major ski resort of Turkey – has the feature of being an international station for freestyle skiing and winter tourism and it is one of the new attraction centre of Turkey and world winter tourism.

Palandöken Ski Resort which is among the longest and the steepest ski track has 2000-3176 altitude difference. In the ski resort there are 7 easy, 8 medium, professional (hard)and 4 natural ski tracks. 10 chairlift, 1 teleski, 2 baby lift, 1 gondola lift provide service in this tracks. By a gondola lift, you can reach  Ejder Tepesi ,which is 3176 m high ,with a 1000 meter climbing.

The ski resort where the alpine skiing and snowboard tracks are located also enable to difference activities such as paragliding, mountaineering, snow tube, paintball. There are 2 ski tracks which are certified by International Ski Federation for Top Slalom Competitions. Nearly 12 thousand people can ski on all the tracks at the same time. "Gaz-Ex" avalanche control system was installed to prevent possible avalanche events.

In Palandöken Ski Resort which can serve to skier at all levels, there are 2 five-star hotels, 1 four-star, 1 three-star hotel and 1 two-star hotel. The capacity of beds in private and public facilities are 2681 in total. Besides these, there are many 3 and 2 star hotels. The distance between the ski resort ,which has 15 km to the airport ,and the city centre is 4 km.

Konaklı Ski Resort

Konaklı Ski Resort is on Erzurum-Çat highway and it takes 22 km from the city centre. The ski resort is located on an area of 460 hectares with an altitude of 2200-3185 meters and it can serve to all levels of the skiers because it has variety of the gradient ratio. In Konaklı area which has 16 ski track potentially there have been 6 mechanical facilities and so they can serve to 14 thousands skiers at the same time. There are ski rentals, sales, box office services, cafes, cafeterias, recreation and service units in the ski center to meet the daily needs of athletes and visitors.

Kandilli Ski Resort

The altitude of the ski centre located on the area of 160 hectares varies from 1713 to 1767 metres. Kandilli ski resort is an area which is open for multipurpose usage for 12 months.

Kandilli cross-country  sport centre has; 2,5 km, 3,75 km and 5 km blue and red tracks; 2 (1,6 km and 1,3 km) sprint track , cross-country stadium , contest conduct and administration building, cabins for each teams, ski-test area, warmup area, area for the audience, VIP tent and other areas. Sprint track has 1.297 metres length, 9-12 metre with, and it has 22 m altitude difference.

Ski resort is  36km from the city centre.

Ski-Jumping Towers

It is one of the symbol facilities of Erzurum with a length of 125 meters and a crescent-shaped image. Within the facility, there are two jumping-towers and two jumping ramps; three training ramps. According to the sea level, the highest ski jump in the towers is 1995 meters, the lowest ski jump is 1902 meters.

Curling Arena

The facility which has 5 curling competition fields and seating capacity for 1000 people is open for all year round and has been used actively especially for younger generations to be trained for winter sports. In the facility there are rooms for the referee, jury, chief-referee and technical delegates and there are 4 halls for the sportsmen.

Ice-Hockey Halls

There are two halls each for women and men. The hall for men has the seating capacity of 3000 people. The rink has the measure of 60x30 metres. The hall for women has the capacity of 500 people and has the rink which is 60x30 metres.

Ice-Skating Hall

The hall which hosts wide variety of competitions open for the public has the capacity of 2000 audiences. In the hall, there are changing rooms, lounges, medical room, doping control room and officer, jury and technical panel rooms.

Short Truck Hall

The hall has the capacity of 500 audiences and the measure of 30X60 metres. There are changing rooms, lounges, medical room, doping control room and officer, jury and technical panel rooms in the hall.

Outdoor Sports

With 64 percent of its geographical area made up of mountains ,Erzurum has the suitable conditions for wide variety of outdoor sports with its valleys, rivers, geological formations, cliffs, mountain ranges, plateaus and altitude  which is higher  than 3000 metres. Erzurum has a unique potential for many activities such as hiking, mountaineering, mountain biking, jeep safari, rafting, canoeing, hand-line fishing, hunting and paragliding. The region also offers a visual feast for outdoor sportsmen with its interesting landscape forms.

ECO - AGRO and Active Tourism

Erzurum is an undiscovered paradise for tourism based on nature. It is the  city of visual fest with its canyons, wide variety of birds and butterfly types, colourful flora which includes wild nature from grizzly bear and wildcat to endemic species, mountain lined one after another, glacial lakes, fairy chimneys, rapid rivers and waterfalls.

Thermal and Health Tourism

With its thermal tourism facilities, Erzurum is one of the important thermal-spring centres. The thermal spring centres in Pasinler, Ilıca and Köprüköy are curative for many diseases. The water of the thermal springs has many features at flow, heat and physical and chemical points. These thermal springs are mainly used for treatment in the stomach, kidney, digestive system and rheumatic disorders. More than 170 springs which will enable thermal tourism have been identified in Erzurum city centre and its districts. There is a thermal hotel and spa in Pasinler and Aziziye, mud ponds in Köprüköy,  primitive facilities in Akdağ, Arzuti, Meman (Tekman), Hamzan (Tekman), Çimenözü (Çat) and Hızırilyas (Horasan).

(Some of the information here is taken from the brochures of Erzurum Provincial Directorate of Culture and Tourism.)